The Order of the Pug: Meet Bavaria’s bizarre secret society

It is 1738, and the Catholic Church has just banned its members from partaking in freemasonry. How are freemasons in a region known for its love of secret societies to react? Against this backdrop, the Order of the Pug was formed. The Order of the Pug retained many of the conventions of masonry, but used a different name in order to skirt the Catholic Church’s … Continue reading The Order of the Pug: Meet Bavaria’s bizarre secret society

A very happy birthday to… Bugs Bunny!

On July 27th, it will have been 80 years since Bugs first appeared in movie theaters. The character’s longevity is remarkable. A 2018 YouGov poll found that Bugs Bunny was the most popular cartoon in the United States, nearly three generations after his first appearance. The origins of Bugs Bunny are complicated. A similar prototypical version of the character first appeared in the 1938 cartoon … Continue reading A very happy birthday to… Bugs Bunny!

J. Edgar Hoover: Defender of civil liberties?

Practically no one with a passing knowledge of J. Edgar Hoover would identify the late FBI director with civil liberty protection. Under his decades-long tenure, the FBI routinely violated the law and the Constitution. The Bureau has spent nearly fifty years trying to reinvigorate its reputation and disassociate itself from the dark days of Hoover. Your typical civil libertarian will probably state that, the greater … Continue reading J. Edgar Hoover: Defender of civil liberties?

President for one day: The David Atchison administration

As of July 11, 2020, there have officially been 45 U.S. presidents. Theories abound regarding the power held by figures such as Dick Cheney or Edith Wilson, but the official tally stands. Should it? The presidential line of succession is an important mechanism to ensure that, at any point in time, someone occupies the office. In 1849, the president pro tempore was third in that … Continue reading President for one day: The David Atchison administration

Welcome to Hell, Biagio da Cesena: Michelangelo’s spiteful addition to ‘The Last Judgment’

As most are aware, Michelangelo’s famous renderings on the Sistine Chapel, “The Last Judgment,” were highly controversial among Italian clergy for their depiction of nudity. Few were more aghast at Michelangelo’s sacrilege than Biagio da Cesena. The conservative Papal Master of Ceremonies expressed his distaste for Michelangelo’s work by stating that, due to the fresco depicting “all those nude figures, exposing themselves so shamefully,” it … Continue reading Welcome to Hell, Biagio da Cesena: Michelangelo’s spiteful addition to ‘The Last Judgment’

What could have been: When the Soviet Union tried to join NATO

As preposterous as the headline sounds, it is in fact true. After Stalin’s death in 1953, his successor, Khrushchev, proposed that the Soviet Union join NATO. At that point, the Warsaw Pact had not been formed and NATO was increasing its membership. Soviet leadership, of course, realized that the proposal would not be warmly received by NATO members. The main purpose of the proposal was … Continue reading What could have been: When the Soviet Union tried to join NATO

A mark of distinction: The earliest gospel revealed (or so we think)

Adherents to Christianity hold the four gospels of Jesus—Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John—in high esteem for their accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus. While many different compilations concerning Jesus were once in circulation among Christians, the Council of Nicaea in the fourth century narrowed the official canon to the aforementioned four gospels. We have a surprisingly strong basis for determining the chronology of … Continue reading A mark of distinction: The earliest gospel revealed (or so we think)

Heraclitus: Obscure to the death

Heraclitus, one of Ancient Greece’s most famous philosophers, is nothing if not controversial. Critics are sharply divided on the man, with some seeing him as either the embodiment of inscrutable wisdom, and others as a mere contrarian filled with facile aphorisms and little else. Some of Heraclitus’s doctrines were held consistently. This included his view that the universe is in a constant state of flux, … Continue reading Heraclitus: Obscure to the death

The flight of Lawn Chair Larry

Long before the film “Up” graced the silver screens, a man set out to follow his life-long dream of flight with the aid of forty-three weather balloons, and on July 2, 1982, he finally succeeded. Lawrence Walters, better known as “Lawn Chair Larry,” had dreamed of being a pilot in the Air Force, but was unsuccessful due to his poor eyesight. Instead, he became a … Continue reading The flight of Lawn Chair Larry

Don’t touch me! The glass delusion of medieval Europe

Charles VI, French King during a portion of the Hundred Years War, is known to history in large part due to his periodic bouts of mental illness. During one prolonged episode, he became convinced that he was comprised of glass, and refused to allow others to touch him for fear of shattering. He had his clothes fortified with iron rods to further protect his body … Continue reading Don’t touch me! The glass delusion of medieval Europe